ИКЕМ - Индустриален клъстер "Електромобили" | Вторник, 12.11.2019 |

Български  English


Pathways to a more Sustainable Transport Infrastructure




Abstract

The imperative to respond to the issues resulting from Peak Oil and Climate Change requires that New Zealand must move from its current high energy use, high resource use, high cost, petroleum dependent, transport infrastructure, to a sustainable one. Because a country's energy profile will increasingly define its economic success, New Zealand needs also to move to a lower energy society to remain competitive with other countries. What will be New Zealand’s successful transport energy of the future and how it may be best used are key considerations of our future sustainable transport system. Low energy, low material use and consequently low cost, will be the main criteria.

This paper first identifies our current transport energy usage, and some of the risks of being slow to respond to change. The paper then questions the central tenants of the current New Zealand Land Transport Strategy (2008) that we move to bio-fuels and electric cars because this is not a low energy, low cost pathway. We advocate that instead of just coping with change, New Zealand uses the necessity to change as an opportunity to recast our transport infrastructure to greatly improve the economic success and liveability of our settlements to New Zealand's benefit.

The second part of the paper outlines a transport infrastructure based around electricity, with a heavy emphasis on public transport use, but also with freight much more dependent on electrified rail. This second part discusses: the advantages that NZ has that will facilitate this transition, such as favourable urban forms; the energy needs and energy availability; the benefits and liveability improvements that should accrue; and the need for lead investment which can also be a tool which induces change of settlement form, thereby reinforcing the effectiveness of the new infrastructure; and some of the impediments.

Introduction

The basis for much of our current transport infrastructure lies in the 1950s. This period marked a pronounced shift in our transport infrastructure, so that we became a high energy, high cost society. Aged electric tram systems in 9 cities were scrapped and their road space given over to cars. Diesel powered locomotives entered service rather than electrifying the railways. A road-only bridge across the Auckland harbour helped reinforce Auckland’s sprawling car dependant nature. A roll-on roll-off ferry service linked the North and South Islands signalled the demise of coastal shipping. Motor vehicle assembly became the mainstay of industrial growth and employment in Auckland and Wellington. Planning of that era laid out the motorway systems of the major cities and completing these systems still shape the thinking and expenditure of the recent National Infrastructure Plan. (Dravitzki &Lester 2006)

As a consequence of these changes energy use and transport costs are now much higher. Rather than using about 0.5 MJ per passenger kilometre on electric trams we were now using about 2 MJ per passenger kilometre in cars. Expenditure on transport has increased from about 4 to 7 percent of household spending to about 18 percent in the mid 1970’s before declining to 14 percent, as at present. (Dravitzki &Lester 2009)

Self sufficiency has declined. NZ shifted from a reliance on domestic capability for transport of our indigenous sources of hydro electricity and coal and local tram and railway workshops and is now importing both our transport energies and the vehicles of transport. Our indigenous contribution to transport is now reduced to supplying the gravels and aggregates for the roadway.

read more




Виж всички анализи


 
Продукти




Зарядна станция - MAR-CSM-T2

Зарядна станция - MAR-CSM-T2


Ново поколение умна зарядна колонка за ускорен заряд на ЕПС! Проектирана и разработена изцяло в България, съвместно с ИКЕМ! oще ...



Домашна зарядна колонка от серията VAL-HP2

Домашна зарядна колонка от серията VAL-HP2


Идеалният избор за ДОМА или ОФИСА! Ускорено зареждане на Електромобил или зареждаем (Plug-in) хибрид! oще ...



Електрически велосипед Liberty MaxDrive

Електрически велосипед Liberty MaxDrive


Изследвайте града с елегантност и стил. Eljoy Liberty – интелигентен избор за търсещите комфорт и независимост. oще ...



Електрически велосипед Allrounder

Електрически велосипед Allrounder


Най-важното и отличително предимство на Eljoy Allrounder е свободата на избор, която предоставя. oще ...



Електрически велосипед Liberty

Електрически велосипед Liberty


Eljoy Liberty е електрически велосипед, създаден с подчертан акцент към хармоничния дизайн и комфорт на каране. oще ...



Виж всички продукти


Анкета с продължение...




Какъв автомобил бихте закупили?


  Чист електромобил с литиево-йонни батерии
  Електромобил с удължен пробег
  Обикновен бензинов или дизелов автомобил
Гласове:


Кой уби електрическата кола? (видео)


Календар - събития




Ноември 2019
Нед Пон Вто Сря Чет Пет Съб
     
ИКЕМ във Facebook








Индустриален клъстер "Електромобили" - Учредители:


ИНСТИТУТ ЗА ЕВРОПЕЙСКИ ЦЕННОСТИ БСК -  Петрич Ди-вен Транспортна Електроника Стратекс Екита Ванико ВиДжиЕф


evi
ЕВРОПЕЙСКИ СЪЮЗ
Европейски фонд
за регионално развитие
Инвестираме във вашето бъдеще
evi
evi
ОПЕРАТИВНА ПРОГРАМА
„Развитие на конкурентоспособността
на българската икономика” 2007-2013
www.opcompetitiveness.bg

Интернет страницата е създадена с финансовата подкрепа на ЕФРР, в рамките на проект „Развитие на Индустриален Клъстер Електромобили” по ДБФП К-02-2/28.09.2011 г.